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TOPIC: Spiritualism

Spiritualism 4 months 3 weeks ago #3502

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Spiritualism is a philosophical direction, which recognizes the main metaphysical basis of being intelligent, the creature's beginning. His attractiveness is explained by communication with spirits and testimonies given to them in favor of life after death. This movement arose in the middle of the XIX century. Officially, the birth date of spiritualism is considered 1848, when the Fox sisters from Heidsville (New York) became widespread because of being overwhelmed with anticipated spirits. Such forms of psychic as swedborgianism and mesmerism laid the grounds of general interest, which made possible their glory. However, even the Greek philosophers began to sharply distinguish between two orders of phenomena - physical and spiritual. This distinction also turned into a new philosophy with the only difference that the ancient philosophers, with the exception of skeptics who denied the possibility of any reliable knowledge, did not ask the question whether the knowledge of the essence of both the physical and the spiritual order of phenomena is accessible to man. The thought, without further disappointments and failures, was boldly taken to resolve the root issues of being. Some Hellenic philosophers considered true only the atoms and denied the independence or substantiality of the soul's beginning, others (in particular, Anaxagoras and Empedocles) recognized in existence the twofold basis - matter and spirit; the third, finally, only saw in the spirit the basis of all being.
The philosophers of the latter two directions are called spiritualists. Spiritualism as a metaphysical teaching opposite to materialism, which sees in the psychic phenomena only one of the functions of matter. Spiritualism partially coincides with dualism and completely with idealism.
With the advent of Kant in philosophy directly posed the question of whether can be considered accessible to knowledge whatever the basis of being was. Recognizing the unknowability of things in itself, Kant for a long time cut off wings in metaphysics and forced to turn to the study of non-essences, and the phenomena and their logical connection and consistency. This view has found a strong support from the side of positivism. Thus, in modern philosophy there is a strong desire not to ask questions about the last bases of being lying beyond the bounds of science, or to refer the question of the soul, its independent existence and immortality, not to epistemology, but to metaphysics. However, this point of view, as well as the positivist direction in general, should be recognized as a modern kind of skepticism.
Whatever the case, which is the essence of spiritualism, the question of the role of the spirit in the universe and its relation to matter is undeniably important not only for philosophy, as science, but also for meeting the requirements of human feelings that have developed over an infinite number of previous generations.
Modern spiritualist churches are flourishing in the UK, America, Brazil, and other countries. The largest organization in the United States - the National Spiritual Association of Churches, founded in 1893 and based in Florida. Many of them are based on the model of Protestant churches, but without an organized clergy. Particular attention is paid to spiritual healing (imposition of hands, energy transfer and prayer) and mental mediums; some mediums retain the attachment to physical mediums.
Spiritualists consider their religion as a science at the same time; many say that spiritualism deals with scientifically proven spiritual phenomena.
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